In the early part of 18th century, depression was thought to be  an inherited, unchangeable weakness of temperament. Subsequently,  affected people used to  be shunned or locked up in isolation.   In the later part of  19th century German Physician Dr Kraepelin regarded psychiatric disorders as disease entities based on a medical, neurological model, with specific, organic aetiology and pathology.   Adolf Meyer(1866-1950, a prominent  Swiss psychiatrist  at Johns Hopkins University viewed all psychiatric disorders as reaction types, or psycho-biological reactions of the organism to stress.   Currently two important manuals: •	‘The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition- (DSM-5)’  •	‘International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10)’   form  standard references for the study,  evaluation and treatment of Psychiatric disorders. Depression cases seem to be increasing when people are shifting from  traditional lifestyles  to more Westernized lifestyles. Depression According to DSM-5 According to DSM-5 ‘the depressive disorders as disruptive mood dysregulation disorder, major depressive disorder (including major depressive episode), persistent depressive disorder (dysthymia), premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and depressive disorder due to another medical condition’. Globally, around 300 million suffer from depression and it is a leading cause of disability worldwide. In the US itself 40 million adults  are affected. Around the world, 800 000  people die due to depression induced suicide every year. Women are twice as likely to be affected when compared to men. Also, when compared to Eastern countries  depression percentage is very high in Western and modern cultures. Men Women Depression cases
Worldwide, it is estimated that 10–20% of adolescents experience mental health problems
According to UNICEF, for adolescent boys and girls, self-harm is among the top five causes of death Let us understand depression Historically…… Modern era It is difficult to quantify depression.  Basically,  depression is characterized by  a set of combination of  features that may include:  Lack of interest, feelings of sadness, feeling hopeless, lack of concentration in various activities, sleeplessness, fatigue, preferring loneliness, shunning social activities, lack of joy and pleasure and so on.  Depression need not be limited to the above features alone.  Many physiological or biological features often are associated with depression. They may include poor digestion, poor appetite, weight loss, severe head aches, or pains such as abdominal  pain, rigid muscles, constipation or diarrhoea, restlessness etc.   Some individuals are obsessed by  thoughts of  suicide or may attempt suicide.
Health Scan: October 2019 -
Contd…next issue 9 Contd…from previous page