Lemon The story of It is very difficult to determine exact  origin of lemon. Lemon has been, probably, in use for the past 2500 years or more. A few researches  indicated that Lemon trees were grown as early as 3500 BC in North Eastern parts of India.   Arab traders brought the lemons to the Middle East and Africa around 100 AD. Around 200 AD, Lemon plantation entered widely in to the areas of Italy. The lemon was introduced into Spain  sometime between the years 1000 and 1200 CE. Subsequently, Lemon farming had spread to Middle East, Europe,  Africa and many adjacent areas. The top 5 producers of lemons in the world each year, in no particular order, are China, India, Mexico, Argentina and Brazil.  Lemons were used as ornamental plants during ancient historical periods. The culinary applications were started in 15h century in Europe.  However, Indian medicinal texts like Ayurveda mention that Lemon has been in therapeutic applications for hundreds of years. Botanical Name: Citrus Limonum. This citrus fruit belongs to the family of Rutaceae.  Growing lemon tree doesn’t require much of effort. Infact, they can be grown easily in household premises.  We even get dwarf lemon plants that could be grown even indoors.  Lemon trees grown outdoors can grow to a height   which can range between 10 and 20 feet. The leaves are green,  ovate-oval and  about two inches long. The flowers have a sweet odour.   The average orchard yield per tree is about 1,500 lemons a year. Lemon History The plant Lemon juice has an approximate PH  of 2.30.    The sour taste of Lemon is  caused by citric acid. Lemon contains some amount of Malic acid and  contains high amounts of ascorbic acid, alternatively known as vitamins C.   Lemon contains alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and reducing sugars. Quercetin, myricitin, rutin, tangeritin, naringin and hesperidin  are a few flavonoids in these citrus families.   Flavonoids determine the yellow colour of  lemons. Lemons, also, contain some low concentrations of carotenes.  Lemon also has minerals like iron, copper, potassium and calcium  Lemon peels also contain   certain enzymes, vitamins and minerals. Chemistry & Pharmacology Christopher Columbus took lemon seeds with him to the America's in 1493, introducing the fruit there. Therapeutic  and health Uses
According   to   the   American   Heart Association     (AHA),     citrus     fruits may      help      lower      the      risk      of ischemic    stroke,    particularly        in women.   The   study   was   made   on nearly     70,000     women     over     14 years.   Flavonoids         are   thought   to provide  that protection.  High   citric   acid   content   in   the   fruit help       increase       urinary       citrate levels     and     helps     in     preventing kidney stones. Lemon     juice     may     help     provide relief    from    problems    related    to indigestion and constipation. Lemons can help in controlling high BP. Antioxidants   in   lemon   may   help   prevent   the   formation   of   free radicals.        Naringenin    in    lemon    has        a    bioactive    effect    on human    health    as    antioxidant,    free    radical    scavenger,    anti- inflammatory, and immune system modulator A   review   published   in   the   Journal   ‘Allergy,   Asthma   &   Clinical Immunology’   found   that   vitamin   C   in   Lemon   helps   in   reducing the intensity of Asthma.
Health Scan April 2019   www.healthscan.biz