Manganese in our body Discovery The element manganese is a silvery-grey metal and it is hard and very brittle. It is not found as a free element in nature and found in combination with iron. Oxides of manganese are colourful and are abundant in nature. They have been used as colourants since the Stone Age and continued through the middle Ages until modern times. 14th-century glass from Venice is an evidence for colourful Manganese compounds which were used by Egyptian and Roman glassmakers. They used manganese compounds either to add, or to remove colour from glass. The origin of the name manganese is complex. The term Manganese originated from German term Mangan.  It was first discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1774 and first isolated as an impure manganese metal in 1774 by Johan Gottlieb Gahn by reducing the manganese dioxide with carbon.  Its symbol is Mn and atomic number 25 and Atomic weight is 54.938044. In periodic table, It Is located in Group: 7, Period: 4 and d-Block. Manganese metal and its ions are paramagnetic. Manganese is a micro mineral with a broad range of functions. In our body manganese is mainly concentrated in kidneys, bones, pancreas and liver. Manganese is important for normal growth and development. It is essential for the activation of several enzymes involved in the synthesis of cartilage. It is also a constituent of certain enzymes involved in the protection of tissues from FREE RADICAL damage. It is necessary to both thyroid and sex hormones production. It is also essential for the manufacture of cholesterol and production of insulin. It is also needed for glucose storage in the liver and for healthy bone growth. Manganese is needed for wound healing as it increases collagen production. It also Increases vitamin absorption, Improves cognitive function, regulates glucose metabolism and improves digestion Role in our body Deficiency Low levels of manganese in the body can result in changes in carbohydrate and fat metabolism, impaired glucose tolerance, bone deformation, stunted growth, decreased serum cholesterol levels, skin rash and elevated blood calcium, and phosphorus levels,  infertility, seizures, weakness, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, hearing loss, anaemia, weak hair and nails and convulsions, blindness or paralysis in infants. Excess There are no documented health dangers from excess manganese in the diet. Although manganese toxicity is rare, high levels of manganese sometimes may cause leg cramps, hallucinations, severe mood swings, headaches, tremors, difficult in walking.  Tolerable Upper Limit (UL) of manganese for adults is 11 mg per day. Consuming more than 11 mg per day may have harmful side effects. Dietary sources •	 Fruits such as pineapple, grapes, kiwi, berries, and almonds. •	Vegetables like dark leafy greens, beets, sweet potatoes, celery, squash and carrots; •	Nuts and seeds; Legumes;  •	Soy products like tofu and tempeh •	Whole grains such as brown rice, oatmeal, raisin bran, quinoa, barley, wheat   •	Herbs and spices like peppermint, cinnamon, cloves and thyme; Garlic, Sea weed, Molasses, Syrup and tea.  •	Egg yolks;
Recommend Dosage
Adequate Intake (AI) levels for manganese
Infants
birth to 6 months
3 mcg
7 to 12 months
600 mcg
Children
1 to 3 years
1.2 mg
4 to 8 years
1.5 mg
Boys
9 to 13 years
1.9 mg
14 to 18 years
2.2 mg
Girls
9 to 18 years
1.6 mg
Males
19 years and older
2.3 mg
Females
19 years and older
1.8 mg
Pregnant women
2 mg
Lactating women
2.6 mg
The daily Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL), for manganese
Children
1 to 3 years
2 mg
4 to 8 years
3 mg
9 to 13 years
6 mg
women
Pregnant and breastfeeding
9 mg.
Iron absorption may decrease due to excess manganese intake Our body stores up to  20 mg of manganese in kidneys, liver, pancreas and bones Welders, steelworkers and people working in mines can have symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease due to the exposure to toxic levels of manganese
Health Scan March 2019 www.healthscan.biz
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A Sandhya