Health Scan: November 2019 - www.healthscan.biz
Physiology or Medicine 2019 The Nobel Prize in How cells sense and adapt to oxygen availability Oxygen is essential for  life: it is used by the mitochondria present in virtually all animal cells in order to convert food into useful energy.  The researcher Otto Warburg, discovered that      this conversion is an enzymatic process, for which he was awarded Nobel prize in Physiology/medicine in the year 1931. But, how cells adapt to changes in levels of oxygen has long been unknown. William G. Kaelin Jr., Sir Peter J. Ratcliffe and Gregg L. Semenza discovered how cells can sense and adapt to changing oxygen availability. They identified molecular machinery that regulates the activity of genes in response to varying levels of oxygen. They established the basis for our understanding of how oxygen levels affect cellular metabolism and physiological function. Their discoveries have also paved the way for promising new strategies to fight anemia, cancer and many other diseases William G. Kaelin Jr.is an American Nobel Laureate born on November 23, 1957 at Jamaica, New York, United States. He is a professor of medicine at Harvard University and the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute and recipient of the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2016. He graduated in mathematics and chemistry at Duke University, and remained for his MD, graduating in 1982.He did his residency in internal medicine at Johns Hopkins University and oncology fellowship at Dana–Farber Cancer Institute. The combined work of Kaelin, Ratcliffe, and Semenza identified the pathway of how cells detect and react to oxygen levels in the blood, and have led to the development of drugs to help patients with anaemia and renal failure. Gregg Leonard Semenza is an American Nobel Laureate, who is a professor of pediatrics, radiation oncology, biological chemistry, medicine, and oncology at the Johns HopkinsUniversity School of Medicine. He serves as the director of the vascular program at the Institute for Cell Engineering..Semenza became the founding director of the Vascular Program at the Johns Hopkins Institute for Cell Engineering following his postdoctoral Research. He is the recipient of the Albert Lasker Award for Basic Medical Research in 2016. Semenza graduated from Sleepy Hollow High School in 1974.  As an undergraduate at Harvard University, he studied medical genetics and mapped genes on chromosome 21. He is known for his discovery of HIF-1, which allows cancer cells to adapt to oxygen-poor environments. He shared the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with William Kaelin Jr. and Peter J. Ratcliffe Sir Peter John Ratcliffe, FRS, FMedSci born on 14 May 1954  is a British Nobel Laureate physician-scientist who is trained as a nephrologist. He was a practising clinician at the John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford and Nuffield Professor of Clinical Medicine and head of the Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine at the University of Oxford from 2004 to 2016. In 2016 he became Clinical Research Director at the Francis Crick Institute. He earned a Bachelor of Medicine, Bachelor of Surgery from St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College at Queen Mary University of London and completed his MB ChB medical degree at St Bartholomew's Hospital Medical College in 1978. Ratcliffe trained in renal medicine at Oxford University, focusing on renal oxygenation. He shared the 2019 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with William Kaelin Jr. and Gregg L. Semenza. Sandhya A