Pyelonephritis Pyelonephritis is a type of Urinary tract infection where in kidneys are infected. Generally, the infection begins  in the bladder and moves upstream to one or both kidneys.  A kidney infection usually happens when bacteria – such as E. coli enter the tube that carries urine out of the body.   The bacteria travel up to your bladder, and  then up into  kidneys where in infection is caused. Pyelonephritis   can be either acute or chronic.  However, Some bacteria such as staphylococcus infections can enter the kidneys from the bloodstream and can cause Kidney infection.
Women are more at risk than men of developing a UTI.
The urinary tract is the body’s drainage system. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, a bladder and  urethra.  Kidneys carry very crucial functions which include: Fluid balance, Electrolyte levels (e.g., sodium, potassium, calcium,  magnesium, acid) Waste removal in the form of urine. The regulation of blood pressure and red blood cell production management. Urine normally flows only in one direction, from the kidneys to the bladder. Due to some reason if the flow of urine is blocked or stagnated or if it flows in the opposite direction,  infections can happen.  The reverse flow could be due to structural problems of the urinary tract. These structural issues could be due to various reasons that include: •	Kidney stones •	Tumours •	Pregnancy •	Prostrate enlargement in the case of males  Weak immune system, issues like diabetes, partner with UTI,have a spinal cord injury or nerve damage around the bladder can be more risk factors.
Bacteria can enter urinary tract from the surrounding skin of genital area and travel up towards bladder. This entry is more easier for bacteria in the case of women due to skin-urethral proximity
What is Pyelonephritis? Role of Urinary system 	Frequent urination 	Painful urination 	Foul urine 	Cloudy urine 	Pain in the groin 	Back pain 	Fever 	Nausea and vomiting
Common symptoms include:
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Diagnosis
Physical Examination, Urine culture and other tests,  Imaging tests such as : Ultrasound, Voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), Digital rectal examination (DRE), CT scan and in some cases Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy are recommended.
Treatment
Kidney infections are treated with antibiotics. Surgery may be needed if there is physical obstruction.
If kidney infection spreads to the bloodstream, it can cause a serious problem called sepsis.  Also, Urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy are dangerous for both mother and baby. These infections should be treated quickly.  Hence, in such cases, one should approach the Physician quickly.
What happens?
No vaccines exist for prevention of acute pyelonephritis.  However, according to NCBI, USA in a study with monkeys, prevention of pyelonephritis by immunization with P-fimbriae is observed.  According to' National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK)',  drinking six to eight, 8-ounce glasses of water a day can help for those without chronic kidney disease or on dialysis. People on dialysis have to follow the instructions of the Physician as far as water and fluid intake is concern.
Note
Helpful tips
Regular physical activities such as: moderate exercise, yoga; pranayama, meditation, stress-free lifestyle, right food habits can largely help in strengthening the immune system.
Health Scan March 2019 www.healthscan.biz
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