How much of vitamin-A is needed, depends on the age and gender. Other factors, such as pregnancy and the health are also important  The Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine suggests the ‘Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Recommended Intakes’  as below:   Infants (average intake)   0 To 6 months: 400 micrograms per day (mcg/day), 7 to 12 months: 500 mcg/day  Children (RDA)  1 to 3 years: 300 mcg/day 4 to 8 years: 400 mcg/day 9 to 13 years: 600 mcg/day  Adolescents and Adults (RDA)  Males age 14 and older: 900 mcg/day Females age 14 and older: 700 mcg/day (770 during pregnancy and 1,300 mcg during lactation) What is Vitamin A? Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin. Its chemical name is Retinol. It is also known as retinol because it produces the pigments in the retina of the eye.  It is well known for its important role in vision.  Vitamin A is found in two primary forms:  •	Active Vitamin A or "pre-formed" Vitamin A  •	Pro-vitamin A or beta carotene.  Preformed Vitamin A comes from animal sources. It is present in a structure called Retinal form or esterified form. Pro-vitamin A comes from plant sources. The most common type of pro-vitamin A is beta-carotene, a carotenoid that produces dark pigments in plant foods. Vitamin A supplements are available in the form of: Preformed-A, Pro-formed-A & combination of both. Vitamin A was  discovered in the year  1913 What is its role? Vitamin A   promotes good vision, especially in low light.  vitamin A, along with zinc, may reduce the risk of developing advanced age-related ‘macular degeneration’. Vitamin A helps form and maintain healthy teeth, skeletal and soft tissue, mucus membranes and skin. It is also a powerful antioxidant and as an antioxidant, it helps building strong bones, regulating gene regulation, maintaining healthy clear skin, facilitating cell differentiation and supporting immune function. Vitamin A keeps the lines and wrinkles in your skin away by producing more collagen, which is responsible for keeping the skin looking young. Vitamin A can also contribute to healthy hair.
Deficiency and excess
Deficiency Deficiency of vitamin A causes increased risk for eye problems like reversible night blindness and non-reversible corneal damage known as xeropthalmia. Lack of vitamin A also causes hyperkeratosis or dry, scaly skin. Lack of vitamin A in children causes severe visual impairment and blindness. Excess Over consumption of vitamin A can lead to lower bone density, jaundice, nausea, loss of appetite, irritability, vomiting, headaches, muscle and abdominal pain and weakness, drowsiness, altered mental status and even hair loss. In chronic cases, it causes hair loss, dry skin, drying of the mucous membranes, fever, insomnia, fatigue, weight loss, bone fractures, anaemia, and diarrhoea. Food sources Animal sources Beef liver, chicken liver, cod liver oil,  fish oil,  secondary sources like milk, cheese and  butter. Plant sources Broccoli, carrots, collard greens, dark green leafy vegetables such as spinach, sweet potatoes, mangoes, carotenoid vegetables with colors orange and yellow  pigments.
Recommended intake
Vitamin-A Quick View Excessive intake of Vitamin-A supplements beyond above recommendations for long can be toxic. Health Scan April 2019   www.healthscan.biz
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